In 2017, the 9th Court of Appeals of Johnson v. Storix confirmed a transfer of copyright without a written assignment.  In this case, the author sold the Anthony Johnson software as an individual contractor and built his business in 2003 under the title Storix, Inc. The court upheld a jury decision that Johnson transferred the copyright to the company on the basis of an annual report he wrote and signed that he had transferred “all the assets” of his individual company. The jury rejected Johnson`s assertion that he only wanted to transfer the license to sell the software and also decided that Johnson would become a loan plant after the company was founded, thereby losing all rights to his spin-off works. This is the first case in which a document that is not itself a contract or agreement and does not contain a reference to copyright has been considered a “reference or a mention” of copyright transmission and where, for the first time, a single owner of a company has been characterized as embedded for copyright purposes. [doubtful – discuss] This serves as a lesson that a “letter” required by copyright law does not necessarily have to be “clear” but may contain ambiguous language that can be interpreted by dealing with the alleged transaction from third parties. It is not clear whether such a transfer of copyright is generally permitted.  Promoters or research institutes, public museums or art galleries may have guidelines that stipulate that copyright to research, content, intellectual property, employment or funds cannot be transferred to third parties, commercially or otherwise.
Normally, a single author signs on behalf of all authors, perhaps without their conscience or permission.  A comprehensive understanding of copyright transfer contracts requires a firm understanding of “Legal Speak” and copyright, in an increasingly complex landscape of licensing and copyright[Note 1][Note 2] and for which there is a steep learning curve for librarians and researchers.   Thus, in many cases, authors may not even have the right to transfer full rights to publishers or agreements have been amended to provide complete texts on repositories or archives, regardless of the subsequent publication contract.  An alienation agreement and a licensing agreement may involve either compensation or no licence fee. If an agreement is reached with compensation, the fee for the exclusive right is due by the new holder. The agreement on the disposal of exclusive rights must contain the conditions: publishers` permission to copy, display and disseminate the work is necessary for publishers to act as such, and the publication agreements of a large number of publishers have such provisions.   The scope of copyright transfer contracts may go far beyond that, and “some publishers require, as far as possible, that copyright be transferred to them.”  This means that no one, including the authors, can reuse texts, paintings or characters in other publications without first obtaining permission from the new copyright holder.  Copyright transfer agreements are generally prepared by the publisher, and some print magazines contain a copy of the statement in each issue they have published.
 If authors want to deviate from the standard wording – z.B. if they want to retain copyright or do not want to give the publisher an exclusive right to publish, they can indicate the desired changes by directly editing the document or adding an addition to a copy of the default version.